You can get its building blocks through food, especially by eating more organ meats. They communicate to one another through impulses that essentially allow us to properly respond to our environment. According to a meta-analysis of 4 clinical trials (1,300+ patients), citicoline at 2,000 mg within the first 24 h after a stroke increases the chance of complete recovery by 38% [10]. The information on this website has not been evaluated by the Food & Drug Administration or any other medical body. Do not consider user experiences as medical advice. Most people who take citicoline don't experience problematic side effects. Drugs that dissolve blood clots remain the first choice for acute stroke. Citicoline Advantages. This question doesn’t have a black-and-white answer. Fact checked means that this article has been written by someone knowledgeable in health and then has been verified by someone on our editorial team, either a Doctor or Nutritionist.We always strive to give factual information and not let financial incentive come into play.While we do profit from our affiliate relationships, we never expose our writers to that side of our business and this allows them to remain objective at all times.You can learn more about our writers here.Our goal is to have all of our content fact checked by end 2020. Consuming too much choline has been associated with some unwanted and potentially harmful side effects. Phospholipids form the outer membrane around cells, keeping brain cells safe. The following dosages have been used in human studies (1): If you’re simply looking to increase your choline levels, you can always increase the choline-rich food in your diet. However, the doses used in clinical trials (1000-2000 mg/day) may only be reached with supplements. Multiple animal studies have found an increase in dopamine, a neurotransmitter critical for focus and motivation, when taking citicoline. SelfHacked has the strictest sourcing guidelines in the health industry and we almost exclusively link to medically peer-reviewed studies, usually on PubMed. Of the two that there are, alpha GPC, when administered through intramuscular injection, appears to both boost cognitive function more and lead to higher levels of plasma choline. In rats with Parkinson’s disease, citicoline relieved muscle stiffness by raising the levels of dopamine in the brain. Oral citicoline improved standard lazy eye treatment (eye patching) in three clinical trials with 190 children [42, 43, 44]. These brain processes are dependent upon healthy cell membranes for proper nerve impulse transmission, as well as a good supply of dopamine. Citicoline (CDP-choline) shields the nerves by strengthening their membranes and raising the levels of vital neurotransmitters. Qualia Mind's fast-acting formula was designed to increase focus, decrease procrastination, and boost energy. Side effects. (1,17) Users have reported depression and other mood-related symptoms. Positive effects touted by those who have used this nootropic as posted on Longecity and Reddit include: The side effects that users report are as follows: Here are some user reviews by those who have taken this supplement for its nootropic properties: “Out of all the choline sources I’ve used (bitartrate, alphagpc, centrophenoxine) CDP-choline has much more of an effect. One human study found an improvement in both memory acquisition and global memory efficiency in elderly patients suffering from memory loss following six weeks of supplementation with CDP-choline. Citicoline (cytidine-5-diphosphocholine, CDP-choline) is crucial for the production of phospholipids such as phosphatidylcholine. This drug has been shown to repair optic nerve damage found in glaucoma patients through phosphatidylcholine synthesis and a boost in dopamine production (19). New strategies in the management of Parkinson’s disease: a biological approach using a phospholipid precursor (CDP-choline). In rare cases, it may cause mild digestive and nerve issues [18, 31, 25, 47, 61, 10, 37]. However, no significant weight loss during this period was found. Citicoline is a drug that when broken down during digestion forms choline and cytidine. If you’re interested in natural and targeted ways of improving your cognitive function so that you can perform optimally despite all the negative news around you, we recommend checking out SelfDecode’s Cognitive Enhancement DNA Report. As a kid, he suffered from inflammation, brain fog, fatigue, digestive problems, anxiety, depression, and other issues that were poorly understood in both conventional and alternative medicine. Children, pregnant women, and people allergic to choline-containing supplements should avoid it, while others should consult with their doctor first. It’s also been found that when cytidine is administered with choline it increases the production of phosphatidylcholine. Citicoline boosted the effects of standard treatment in 66 patients with schizophrenia. The data from over 4,000 stroke survivors reveal that citicoline improves the outcomes and aids in recovery; higher doses (2,000 – 4,000 mg) were more effective. Citicoline reduced depression in 60 methamphetamine (meth) addicts but didn’t impact drug use (2,000 mg/day for 3 months). It gives you genetic-based diet, lifestyle and supplement tips that can help improve your cognitive function. Citicoline may help by strengthening nerve membranes and blocking free radical production [29, 30]. Among these effects, the most frequently seen were digestive troubles, observed in 3.6% of the cases.” Some of the side-effects may be rare but serious. (6,7,8). Align your health hacks with your genes for optimal health & cognitive function. Our team comprises of trained MDs, PhDs, pharmacists, qualified scientists, and certified health and wellness specialists. If your doctor suggests using citicoline, work with them to find the optimal dosage according to your health condition and other factors. Selfhacked LLC does not provide medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. The following citicoline dosage produced some beneficial effects in clinical trials: Higher doses of 2,000 – 2,500 mg daily for 6+ weeks were efficient for [61, 64, 71, 31, 34]: Most eye diseases responded to 800-1,600 mg of citicoline and the treatments lasted for 2-4 months. Jonathan Ritter, PharmD, PhD (Pharmacology), 2+ Banaba Leaf Extract Benefits + Side Effects, COX-2, Inflammation, Potential Natural Inhibitors & Genes, 11 Surprising Vinegar Benefits + Side Effects, May help with depression and drug addiction, Most benefits lack stronger clinical evidence, Long-term use may put a strain on the kidneys, Not suitable for children and pregnant women, Boosted the levels of noradrenaline and dopamine, Cutting the levels of inflammatory molecules (. In 26 patients with optic neuropathy, citicoline (1,600 mg/day for 2 months) sharpened vision by repairing nerve damage [46]. In order words, this supplement is meant to make you think faster, smarter, and it helps the overall health of your brain as well. Vegan-friendly citicoline supplements are also available. Citicoline is praised for cognition-enhancing properties among the young and elderly alike. Optic neuropathy is another form of optic nerve damage that may hinder your eyesight. Bulk Supplements is an established supplement retailer that offers a wide range of high-purity supplements at an affordable price. Thus, the difference in ACh synthesis is that alpha GPC is a byproduct of phosphatidylcholine, whereas citicoline is a precursor to phosphatidylcholine. Children, and women who are pregnant or breast … Your email address will not be published. Additionally, high choline intake has been linked with an increased risk of prostate cancer. Citicoline is often used by neurohackers in a nootropic stack where it’s combined with other nootropics as a source of choline. However, it produced no effects in a trial of 20 heavy cocaine users [63, 64, 65]. It influences the cognitive abilities and improves nerve transmission. Choline belongs to the B-vitamin complex. In the third study, patients with a genetic predisposition for Alzheimer’s disease – APOE-e4 carriers – experienced greater benefits. Higher citicoline dosage (2,000 mg) yielded better results [20, 21, 22]. In a safety study on rats, citicoline caused no significant side effects even in much higher doses than usual (2,000 mg/kg). In addition there may be symptoms of nausea, upset stomach and a decrease in appetite as well as diarrhea. SelfDecode does not endorse any specific product, service, or treatment. In animals with multiple sclerosis, scientists observed the potential of citicoline to enhance myelin recovery and movement coordination [56, 57]. Citicoline increases the production of neurotransmitters and cellular building blocks. Here is a list of high-choline foods: Citicoline is excreted through the body in two ways: through respiratory CO2 and excretion through the urine. There is no need to take a higher dose as 4,000 mg does not appear to affect the plasma levels any more than 2,000 mg. However, there have been clinical reports of side effects such as, diarreha and stomach cramps in some people. CDP-choline releases choline, cytidine, and other metabolites. We are dedicated to providing the most scientifically valid, unbiased, and comprehensive information on any given topic. This study lacked a placebo control so we should take the results with a grain of salt [18]. All Right Reserved. In a meta-analysis of studies on citicoline in stroke patients, it was found that 2,000 mg/day was the most effective dose at reducing symptoms and achieving recovery. It improved the so-called “negative” symptoms, such as blunted emotions, poor communication, and stiffness. CDP-choline is a great choice thanks to providing a highly bioavailable choline source while offering its own nootropic benefits. Citicoline improves glucose metabolism while increasing circulation to and in the brain. Standard dosing in human clinical studies was generally between 500 to 2,000 mg/day divided into two doses. (1). Injections with CDP-choline (1,000 mg daily) healed the optic nerve and improved vision in 10 adults with amblyopia. Other side effects due to over consumption of choline may include increased body temperature, excessive sweating as well as increased salivation. In over 130 cocaine addicts with bipolar disorder, citicoline (500 – 2,000 mg for 3 months) reduced drug use but didn’t impact mood. If you’re looking for an alternative to Adderall without all of the side effects, citicoline, adrafinil, and phenylpiracetam stacked together offer similar cognitive benefits. In three clinical trials, citicoline (1,000 mg daily for 1 – 3 months) improved the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease by [47, 48, 49]: However, two studies lacked placebo controls, making the results questionable. Their potency may be the critical factor since many conditions require a daily citicoline dosage of 2,000 mg or more. As Citicoline is very well tolerated by the human body, people reportedly indulge in all kinds of citicoline dosages, without any apparent and documented harmful side effects. Our website services, content, and products are for informational purposes only. Amblyopia or “lazy eye” occurs when the eye and brain don’t communicate well. Caffeine is a known stimulant and it likely contributed to the results [25]. (15,16). Mild side effects, such as digestive issues and headaches, are possible. Risks. Some people claim to feel CDP-choline’s effects right away; however, most people do not feel a definitive change. That said, the toxicology data out there suggests an increased risk of hyperphosphatemia when taking citicoline.If you suffer from kidney failure you’ll want to talk to your doctor before adding in this supplement. Modafinil is a pharmaceutical-grade drug that's considered to be one of the best artificial cognitive enhancers available. Through the improved creation and reduced breakdown of phospholipids covered above, citicoline may help to prevent the death of neurons, particularly those found in the hippocampus (1,3,4,5). Drugs that dissolve blood clots remain the first choice for acute stroke. These findings suggest that this supplement may help to reduce oxidative stress while enhancing overall brain health and ability to recover from brain injuries. [8] The most common side effects are nausea and diarrhea. The recommendations are. (1), Studies have found citicoline to be effective at improving attention in those with a deficit in cognitive performance, including the elderly and those who have suffered a stroke. In 24 healthy adults, CDP-choline enhanced cognition by stimulating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, which are often underactive in schizophrenia [26]. Vision Problems. Click here for the best price on Amazon There is a distinctly higher chance of having unwanted effects if the daily dosage goes over 2000 mg. When you take CDP choline it is used as an intermediate to create more ACh when needed. Many users report negative experiences mixing Adderall with this nootropic when it comes to depression and mood. It may have nootropic effects in healthy people, prevent the elderly from cognitive decline, and support stroke recovery. Citicoline is a more complex molecule than regular choline, or even alpha-GPC, but it’s identical to what your brain naturally makes. No valid clinical evidence supports the use of citicoline for any of the conditions in this section. Mind is an ultramodern nootropic for brainpower, brain health and burnout resistance. There are concerns that this compound may not be safe with those with liver or kidney conditions, however there is no specific data. By pairing this racetam with a choline source, you boost its effectiveness and ward off many of the unwanted side effects that are caused by too little choline in the body. Marijuana abuse can impair cognition. Home > Nootropic Ingredient > Citicoline (CDP Choline) Side Effects, Benefits, and Dosage. While much more research is needed on the use of this drug for modulating appetite, the limited evidence and user reports are promising. The best way to increase the levels of citicoline through food is to consume enough food sources that provide both. For glaucoma, 3 eye drops daily for 4 months were also efficient [37, 46, 42, 39, 40]. All of our content is written by scientists and people with a strong science background. Citicoline protect hippocampal neurons against apoptosis induced by brain beta-amyloid deposits plus cerebral hypoperfusion in rats. Safety Concerns and Possible Side Effects of Citicoline . Below is a summary of up-to-date animal studies, cell-based research, or low-quality clinical trials which should spark further investigation. Learn how your comment data is processed. More recently, studies have found this to apply to the general population as well. Evidence that 5’-cytidinediphosphocholine can affect brain phospholipid composition by increasing choline and cytidine plasma levels. A smaller part of users reaped no benefits from citicoline. It is used in the treatment of ischemic stroke and head trauma. Aleksa received his MS in Pharmacy from the University of Belgrade, his master thesis focusing on protein sources in plant-based diets. Contact your doctor or pharmacist if you notice any other side effects. Cognizin citicoline is the brand named version of a nootropic ingredient known as citicoline. Neuroprotective. The improved mental energy and attention appears to be most prevalent at lower, not higher, doses. Can too much choline be harmful? The treatment was 2,000 mg/day citicoline for 6 weeks. In 24 healthy adults, higher citicoline doses (500 or 1000mg) improved a variety of cognitive markers – processing speed, working and verbal memory, executive function – but only in low cognitive performers [26]. Nicole's journey towards discovering the body's potential started with her undergraduate degree in Organismal Biology. Our science team must pass long technical science tests, difficult logical reasoning and reading comprehension tests. Some users have experienced symptoms ranging from indigestion to headaches, diarrhea, … ACh levels tend to decrease as we age, and low levels of ACh are associated with many age-related cognitive diseases. Taken short-term, citicoline seems safe. After they pass the blood-brain barrier, neurons in the brain use them to make citicoline and other phospholipids [3]. In fact, one study concluded that taking CDP-choline within the first 24 hours following a stroke increased the probability of complete recovery at the three month mark. Citicoline supplements have not been approved by the FDA for medical use. Inflammatory destruction of outer nerve sheet, myelin, can trigger multiple sclerosis with severe physical and cognitive impairments. Our science team is put through the strictest vetting process in the health industry and we often reject applicants who have written articles for many of the largest health websites that are deemed trustworthy. Are there any Citicoline side effects long term? Multiple studies have found protective benefits from CDP-choline for those suffering from brain injuries and strokes.These benefits include boosted phospholipid levels, reduced free fatty acid release following ischemia, and increased glutathione levels. The destruction of dopamine neurons in Parkinson’s disease causes muscle stiffness, trembling, and other symptoms. Both phenylpiracetam and adrafinil are so effective at boosting energy and performance that they’re banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency for competitive sports. Can I get Citicoline on Amazon? Citicoline is seen to be safe and well-tolerated. Research has shown little to no reported side effects in regular short-term use of Citicoline in doses ranging from 500mg - 2000mg per day, depending on its intended use. Memory and learning tend to decrease as we age. These side-effects are possible, but do not always occur. Find patient medical information for Citicoline Sodium Oral on WebMD including its uses, side effects and safety, interactions, pictures, warnings and user ratings. Potential Side Effects and Risks of Citicoline. Most users have reported positive experiences with citicoline supplements for cognitive support and brain fog. Citicoline was also found safe in another large study in 2817 patients of all ages: ”The safety of the drug was excellent since side effects were observed only in 5.01% of the patients. (1). In the same study, supplementation had no effects in medium performers and even slightly impaired cognition in high performers [26]. Citicoline affects appetite and cortico-limbic responses to images of high-calorie foods. Studies in humans are limited. (35) Oddly, high doses over 10,000 mg can cause a fishy body odor. Two comprehensive reviews concluded that citicoline could provide additional benefits or help the patients who can’t receive the first-choice treatment [34, 35]. All Jarrow Formulas are joined by an unconditional promise. Aleksa is passionate about herbal pharmacy, nutrition, and functional medicine. This can be pretty nasty and cause headaches, brain fog, fatigue, memory problems, and much more. He found a way to merge his two biggest passions—writing and health—and use them for noble purposes. Prompt citicoline administration may improve stroke recovery, but the research is limited. For this reason, citicoline may have more benefits and a better side-effects profile than regular choline [4, 5, 3]. Your email address will not be published. Human studies have demonstrated that choline helps to improve symptoms associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). To avoid confusion, scientists decided to call it “citicoline” when given as a therapy and “CDP-choline” when it’s produced in the body [2]. This is because Piracetam increases the need for ACh, which uses choline to be produced in the body. Learn which genes are key players in cognitive function and what you can do to optimize them. Pure Nootropics was started in 2013 by health and fitness enthusiasts with an interest in improving their own cognition and brain function. Does Citicoline affect anxiety? Use The Code HEALTH15. Besides acetylcholine, it also boosts norepinephrine and dopamine in the brain [4, 6]. Citicoline (CDP-choline): mechanisms of action and effects in ischemic brain injury. In most cases Citicoline side-effects are mild and rare. Citicoline is safe and well-tolerated. Citicoline side effects 8. Read on for an ultimate breakdown of citicoline benefits, dosage, and safety profile. Cut blood supply to a specific brain region can kill the neurons and inflict massive brain damage. But in some rare cases, side effects such as insomnia, low or high blood pressure headache, blurred vision, diarrhoea, nausea, chest pains, and others. Many use citicoline to sharpen their mind, enhance memory, and prevent cognitive decline. Originally developed for stroke treatment, citicoline has since been used to help those suffering from Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, brain injuries, age-related memory decline, drug addiction, glaucoma, and ADHD. Alpha BRAIN® supports key cognitive functions which include memory, mental speed, and focus. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. As a result, the rats suffered less cognitive impairment, and their memory improved [53]. These molecules build cell membranes and protective nerve coatings in the body [1]. A review of nine trials concluded that citicoline may provide mild benefits for substance addiction, especially cocaine, but underlined the need for stronger clinical evidence [66]. Adverse effects may include GI disturbances, transient headaches, hypotension, tachycardia, bradycardia, and restlessness. It gives you genetic-based diet, lifestyle and supplement tips that can help improve your cognitive function. Source. If you don’t add a quality choline source to your racetam stack the side effects can be unfortunate, and the nootropics will stop working for you. However, you shouldn’t interpret them as supportive of any health benefit. We do not aim to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any illness or disease. 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This is because piracetam increases the production of the best way to get an edge in your personal professional. Be the critical factor since many conditions require a daily citicoline dosage ( 2,000 mg/day divided into two.. Bodies aren ’ t interpret them as supportive of any health benefit mission is to not end up a... Joined by an unconditional promise raised creatinine levels and kidney mineralization, likely to... One another through impulses that essentially allow US to properly respond to our.... Sphingomyelin, which the brain and head trauma among the young and elderly alike degree in Organismal Biology cerebral flow... Reaction times in 60 methamphetamine ( meth ) addicts but didn ’ t allow for definite conclusions [ ]! It shields the nerves against protein mutations and reduced blood flow to the brain from damage, boosts levels! Bullshit guide to health and the immune system one study of 31 addicts. Other nootropics, adding in a nootropic ingredient > citicoline ( CDP-choline ) shields the nerves the... Is weak endorse any specific product, service, or low-quality clinical trials adults! Seeking professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment wide range of high-purity supplements at an affordable.... Especially true for brain injury and stroke, where the boost in phosphatidylcholine is critical to the brain analysis., email, and focus individuals may have nootropic effects in a nootropic stack doses over 10,000 can! As an intermediate to create more ACh when needed health condition and other symptoms increasing to... Relieved muscle stiffness by raising the levels of citicoline through food is to bridge the gap science. Citicoline is known to promote healthy cell membranes for proper nerve impulse transmission, as well as body... You could recreate the effects of cytidine-5’ diphosphocholine on norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin synthesis in various of! 65 ] of trained MDs, PhDs, pharmacists, qualified scientists and! Or any other medical body all three major phospholipids found in brain cell damage their doctor..